This report provides insight into which climate and energy policies can most cost-effectively drive down China’s emissions. The report’s recommendations are based on results from the Energy Policy Simulator (EPS), which assesses the combined effects of 35 climate, energy, and environmental policies on a variety of metrics.
Major Energy Economies: China
China’s power sector is undergoing major changes in order to meet ambitious goals for air quality, renewable energy, and carbon emissions. This paper from the Paulson Institute suggests market-oriented reforms that will help achieve the goals outlined in the government’s “Deepening Reform” policy document. Drawing on international experience and focusing on incentives to align the behavior of power sector firms, the authors recommend ways to boost deployment of renewables and improve energy efficiency.
A Model of Energy Policy Impacts on Pollutant Emissions, Costs, and Social Benefits Developed for China’s Central Government
This paper describes Energy Innovation’s Energy Policy Simulator, a system dynamics model that assists in selecting policies that will allow China to achieve its emissions reduction goals. The model’s results find that China can peak its carbon emissions before its target year of 2030, and this is done most cost-effectively via a package of policies supporting a diverse set of technologies.
This introduction the the journal, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (volume 20, issue 5), describes current trends in China’s transportation sector, primarily the increased use of motor vehicles as a result of sprawling and car-focused urban development. Motor vehicles have increased China’s traffic congestion and air pollution. This introduction mentions the subsequent articles in the journal that cover solutions for cleaner and more efficient Chinese transport, including urban development, transport planning, vehicle fuel efficiency standards, vehicle emission standards, and electric drive technology.
This document represents key insights developed at the Restoring Blue Skies Air Quality Workshop held in Beijing on September 17-18, 2014 co-organized by the Paulson Institute, Energy Foundation, Energy Innovation and Chinese partners. Participants included 80 leaders from 42 Chinese and international organizations.
This report synthesizes data gathered during a literature review of studies that quantify the economic, environmental, and social impacts associated with urban development. It concludes that compact, walkable, and transit-oriented development creates sustainable, healthy, and economically vibrant cities. The elements of urban design necessary for sustainable development are characterized by The 8 Principles, which are originally defined in Planning Cities for People.
This study determines the technical and economic feasibility of incorporating a high share of renewable energy in China’s energy sector. It finds that 60% of the country’s primary energy demand, and 86% of its power supply, can come from renewable energy by 2050. A Chinese version of the Executive Summary can be found here.
Author Antung Anthony Liu argues that carbon taxes that recycle revenues and cut taxes in other areas can be good for both economic welfare and growth because they are more efficient than other forms of taxation. The paper summarizes three advantages of carbon taxes, contending they are harder to evade than other taxes, less likely to distort market behavior, and act as a deterrent to the informal, untaxed economy.
This paper, part of a series of Paulson Papers on Energy and Environment provides an overview and examination of China’s energy structure. It assesses some of China’s energy challenges and the existing proposals to reshape its energy landscape through 2020. The paper frames the relationship between China’s energy sector and economic growth, highlighting the uncertainty of how a more consumption-driven Chinese economy will impact the country’s energy future.
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of China’s energy strategies, policies, and choices. Author Damien Ma frames the underlying challenges facing the nation and explains current proposals to reshape the Chinese energy landscape through 2020.
Ma argues that it will take a variety of solutions, including technology, smart policies, and market incentives, for China to keep growing its economy while limiting its emissions and environmental impacts.